The core of our argument is that perception and vision is species-specific, directed, and expressive instead of singular, linear, representative, and objective. We are not the first to question the assumption of an all-seeing view of perception; yet much extant work across the cognitive sciences continues to rely on this assumption. Perception necessarily originates from a perspective, or point of view.
Seeing-perception and vision-is implicitly the fundamental building block of the literature on rationality and cognition. Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman's arguments against the omniscience of economic agents-and the concept of bounded rationality-depend critically on a particular view of the nature of perception and vision. We propose that this framework of rationality merely replaces economic omniscience with perceptual omniscience. We show how the cognitive and social sciences feature a pervasive but problematic meta-assumption that is characterized by an \"all-seeing eye.\" We raise concerns about this assumption and discuss different ways in which the all-seeing eye manifests itself in existing research on (bounded) rationality. We first consider the centrality of vision and perception in Simon's pioneering work. We then point to Kahneman's work-particularly his article \"Maps of Bounded Rationality\"-to illustrate the pervasiveness of an all-seeing view of perception, as manifested in the extensive use of visual examples and illusions. Similar assumptions about perception can be found across a large literature in the cognitive sciences. The central problem is the present emphasis on inverse optics-the objective nature of objects and environments, e.g., size, contrast, and color. This framework ignores the nature of the organism and perceiver. We argue instead that reality is constructed and expressed, and we discuss the species-specificity of perception, as well as perception as a user interface. We draw on vision science as well as the arts to develop an alternative understanding of rationality in the cognitive and social sciences. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our arguments for the rationality and decision-making literature in cognitive psychology and behavioral economics, along with suggesting some ways forward.
The Eye of Providence (known also as the all-seeing eye of God) is a well-known and popular symbol. This symbol has been used for centuries in both religious and secular contexts, and therefore its representation can be found in many places. For Americans, The Eye of Providence is most commonly found on the reverse of the United States one-dollar bill. This design is in turn derived from the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States. The Eye of Providence has also been associated with the Freemasons, and thanks to films, such as the 2004 National Treasure, starring Nicolas Cage, conspiracy theories linking the Freemasons with the founding of the United States have been popularized.
But this symbol's meaning and creation actually have nothing to do with any of that. It shows an eye, often surrounded by rays of light, enclosed by a triangle. Artists used it to represent the all-seeing eye of God. The three points of the triangle represent the Christian mythology of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The rays of light are stand-ins for holiness and divinity. One of the first known appearances of it is in this painting: the Supper of Emmaus painted for the Carthusians in 1525.
Steven C. Bullock: The all-seeing eye of God was designed for freemasons was designed to be a message to themselves. \"We are being watched over, therefore we need to live up to the standards of not only religion but also Freemasonry.\"
This unique all-seeing-eye journal is leather bound with hand tooled stitching and adorned with the eye at the center and is filled with hand-made cotton parchment paper. An attractive, embossed stitched, sacred eye journal with a binding wrap that overlaps under its front cover, with single metal bronze colored latch, for keeping its pages safe. Angled stitching around all outside edges, as well as the outside eye shape of its Sacred Eye upon front center, surrounded by patterned stitch. The back cover and spine are interestingly tanned giving the appearance of a wood leathered wood grain. 120 heavy weight pages, 5\" x 7\", (made from goat leather).
EYE WITH SUNBURST (ALL SEEING EYE) - Represents the all-seeing eye of God and is a reminder that a Mason's thoughts and deeds are always observed by God (who is referred to in Masonry as the Great Architect of the Universe). Typically, the Masonic Eye of Providence has a semi-circular glory below the eye. 59ce067264