The Maturidi school was founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi, and is the most popular theological school amongst Muslims, especially in the areas formerly controlled by the Ottomans and the Mughals. Today, the Maturidi school is the position favored by the Ahl ar-Ra'y ("people of reason"), which includes only the Hanafi school of fiqh who make up the majority of Sunni Muslims.
The Usuli form the overwhelming majority within the Twelver Shia denomination. They follow a Marja-i Taqlid on the subject of taqlid and fiqh. They are concentrated in Iran, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, India, Iraq, and Lebanon.
Imam al-Kawthari (d. 1371) took fiqh from his father, and also from thehadith master Ibrahim Haqqi (d. 1345) and from Shaykh Zayn al-'Abidinal-Alsuni (d. 1336).Al-Kawthari's father took fiqh from the hadith master Ahmad Dya' al-Dinal-Kamushkhanawi al-Naqshbandi (d. 1311) the author of the hadith indexRamuz al-Ahadith.who took fiqh from Sayyid Ahmad al-Arwadi (d. 1275)who took fiqh from the hadith master Muhammad Amin, Ibn ʿAbidin (d. 1252),whose chain is given elsewhere.Both Haqqi and Alsuni took fiqh from the hadith master Ahmad Shakir (d.1315)who took fiqh from the hadith master Muhammad Ghalib (d. 1286)who took fiqh from Sulayman ibn al-Hasan al-Kraydi (d. 1268)who took fiqh from Ibrahim al-Akhiskhawi (d. 1232)who took fiqh from Muhammad Munib al-'Aynatabi (d. 1238)who took fiqh from Isma'il ibn Muhammad al-Qunawi (d. 1195)who took fiqh from ʿAbd al-Karim al-Qunawi al-Amidi (d.1150)who took fiqh from Muhammad al-Yamani al-Azhari (d. 1135)who took fiqh from ʿAbd al-Hayy al-Shurunbulaliwho took fiqh from Abu al-Ikhlas al-Hasan al-Shurunbulali (d. 1069)who took fiqh from ʿAbd Allah ibn Muhammad al-Nuhrayriand from Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Muhibbi al-Qahiri (d. 1041)who both took fiqh from ʿAli al-Maqdisi (d. 1004)who took fiqh from Ahmad ibn Yunus al-Shalabi (d. 948)who took fiqh from ʿAbd al-Barr ibn al-Shahna (d. 921)who took fiqh from Imam al-Kamal ibn al-Humam (d. 861)who took fiqh from Siraj al-Din ʿUmar ibn ʿAli Qari' al-Hidaya (d. 829)who took fiqh:1) from ʿAla's al-Din al-Sirami (d. 790)who took fiqh from Jalal al-Din al-Karlaniwho took fiqh from ʿAbd al-'Aziz al-Bukhari (d. 730) [the author of Kashfal-Asrar, a manual of Usul al-Fiqh]who took fiqh from Hafiz al-Din Imam ʿAbd Allah ibn Ahmad al-Nasafi (d.701)who took fiqh from the Sun of Imams Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Sattar al-Kardari2) from Akmal al-Din Muhammad al-Babarti (d. 796)who took fiqh from Qawwam al-Din Muhammad al-Kaki (d. 749)who took fiqh from al-Husayn al-Saghnaqi (d. 711)who took fiqh from Hafiz al-Din al-Kabir Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Nasral-Bukhari (d. 693)who also took fiqh from Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Sattar al-Kardari (d. 642)Al-Kardari took fiqh from the author of the Hidaya, Imam ʿAli ibn Abi Bakral-Marghinani (d. 593)who took fiqh from al-Najm Abu Hafs ʿUmar al-Nasafi (d. 537)who took fiqh from the two Pazdawi brothers, Fakhr al-Islam (d. 482) andSadr al-Islam (d. 493),the first of whom took fiqh from the Sun of Imams al-Sarkhasi (d. 483) theauthor of the Mabsut,who took fiqh from the Sun of Imams al-Halwa'i (d. 448)who took fiqh from al-Husayn ibn Khidr al-Nasafi (d. 423)who took fiqh from Muhammad ibn al-Fadl al-Bukhari (d. 381)who took fiqh from ʿAbd Allah ibn Muhammad al-Harithi (d. 340)who took fiqh from Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Hafs (d. 264)who took fiqh from his father Abu Hafs al-Kabir (d. 217)who took fiqh from the Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani (d. 189) thecompanion of Imam Abu Hanifa - Allah be well-pleased with him -,while Sadr al-Islam took fiqh from Isma'il ibn ʿAbd al-Sadiqwho took fiqh from ʿAbd al-Karim al-Pazdawi (d. 390)who took fiqh from the Imam of Guidance Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (d. 333)who took fiqh from Abu Bakr al-Jawjazaniwho took fiqh from Abu Sulayman Musa ibn Sulayman al-Jawjazaniwho also took fiqh from the Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani.Al-Shaybani took fiqh from the founder of the madhhab Imam Abu Hanifaal-Nuʿman (d. 150)who took fiqh from Hammad ibn Abi Sulayman (d. 120)who took fiqh from Ibrahim ibn Yazid al-Nakhaʿi (d. 95)who took fiqh from  ʿAlqama ibn Qays (d. 62),  al-Aswad ibn Yazid(d. 75), and  Abu ʿAbd al-Rahman ʿAbd Allah ibn Hubayyib al-Sulami (d.74 or 73)ʿAlqama and al-Aswad took fiqh from ʿAbd Allah ibn Masʿud (d. 32) - Allahbe well-pleased with him -,while al-Sulami took fiqh from Sayyiduna ʿAli - Allah be well-pleased withhim - who was martyred in Kufa in the month of Ramadan of the year 40.
A tireless scholar, there is apparently no field of the Islamic sciencesin which al-Kawthari did not have a well-founded claim to authority. Heedited and brought back into circulation countless classical books offiqh, hadith, and usūl after he moved to Cairo. A staunch Ashʿari, he heldan extremely critical view of anti-Ashʿaris, considering Ibn Taymiyya anunmitigated anthropomorphist. Among the books he authored as listed by hisstudent Ahmad Khayri:
* Fiqh Ahl al-ʿIraq ("The Jurisprudence of the Iraqi Scholars"), less thana hundred pages in length, it is one of the great works on the remarkablecharacter of Hanafi fiqh and its school and contains useful definitions ofkey concepts such as analogy (qiyās), scholarly exertion (ijtihād), anddiscretion (istihsān) as well as biographical notices on the most eminentfigures of the Hanafi school. It was meticulously commented upon by ShaykhʿAbd al-Fattah Abu Ghudda. Excerpts:
* Al-Ghaznawi's (d. 773) al-Ghurra al-Munifa fi Tahqiq Baʿd Masa'ilal-Imam Abi Hanifa, a work of comparative fiqh between the Hanafi andShafiʿi schools similar to al-Bayhaqi's al-Khilafiyyat, written by requestof the scholarly emir Sirghatmish al-Misri in refutation of al-Razi'sal-Tariqa al-Baha'iyya fi al-Khilaf, a treatise on the differences of thejurists advocating the supremacy of the Shafiʿi position. Al-Ghaznawitranslated al-Razi's work into Arabic from the original Persian in theprocess.
This is a collection by Muhammad b. Abd al-Rahman al-Ahdal (1277-1352) of the famous Ahdal family of Yemen. It is arranged according to fiqh chapters and contains many useful discussions and some modern issues rarely found elsewhere.
Mashallah, this post is extremely informative about the Shafi madhab. Although I am not Shafii in fiqh myself the information here is of much help to myself in finding out sources from which I can learn about the differences of opinion within the ummah. May Allah reward you for your efforts in propogating Ilm.
I had a few questions about the usul al fiqh stages listed. Apologises for the number of questions. Firstly, I am not a shafii, I am hanafi, though I have an interest in usul al fiqh and am studying shafii and hanafi books of usul al fiqh. I have discussed with my shuyukh of course, but i wished to hear your perspective as well:
1. Was the intent of the stage for one to study all books in each stage before taking books from the next stage? Or one from each stage? or a handful of them depending on the mastery one wants to achieve? I assume its much more important to be studying more of the later stages. It seems Im to be going from (in terms of shafii usul al fiqh) al waraqaat, to al luma and al faqih wal muttafaqih (I am in the middle of this stage atm), to lubb al usul, to jam al jawami etc
2. How far can one reasonably study usul al fiqh before they need to make sure to be more firmly grounded in the fiqh. On this note, how would you feel if someone (specifically me) were to swap the third and fourth stages? The connection between the usul and the furu is more obvious with hanafi usul al fiqh and my knowledge of the fiqh lets me question the usul and get a better understanding of the whole picture. 2b1af7f3a8